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hispectrum - HI spectrum extraction and gridder


hispectrum [parameter=value]


hispectrum can perform any of the following functions:

1) List the scan positions of a given HI survey dataset.

2) Extract a single spectrum from the combined HI surveys. It does this by simply searching through the databases until the distance to the requested position is less than a required miniumum distance. It can also report the nearest or take an average of the spectra within a search radius. See the mode= keyword below.

3) Combine, weigh and grid spectra from the combined HI surveys into a velocity-position-position (VLB) datacube. This is generally a time- and disk-consuming task, since a temporary list of relevant scans is written to disk into a scratch file. Note that creating a datacube is done by gridding in X and Y, while the Velocity axis is sampled (interpolated) from a predefined set of values (normally regular, like the grid in X and Y).

The HI survey databases live in either your current directory or the directory given by the environment variable HI_DIR, and can be compressed (.Z or .gz) (see hi(5NEMO) ).


The following parameters are recognized in any order if the keyword is also given:
Input dataset id’s to combine {hh,pk,ar,bl,ww,kj,lb}. Minimum match is applied. See also hi(5NEMO) for survey id’s. [No default].
Desired galactic longitude (l) to find a single spectrum. Must be in the range 0..360 degrees. If none supplied, all scan positions in the database will be shown. This keyword is only active when cube gridding (see cube= below) has not been selected.
Desired galactic latitude (b) to find a single spectrum. Must be in the range -90..90 degrees. See comments above.
Velocity value samples (km/s, in LSR units), on which the output spectrum is interpolated. If none choosen, the original raw data will be shown. When gridding a datacube (see cube= below), you must specify these output velocities since different datasets are on different velocity scales (note: the user should compensate for interpolation using the bscale/bzero keywords below). When a requested velocity is outside the range of the raw data, 0.0 is returned in the spectrum. Default: none.
Output cube, if requested. This file will be in standard fits(5NEMO) format. Default: none, a single spectrum or all scan positions are listed (see lat= and lon= above).
X-range (min and max) and step, in the output cube (see also projection=). If xmin is negative, the galactic center will be properly placed somewhere in the middle of the grid. Note these values are the centers of the first and last pixel requested, not the edges of the pixels. Default: none.
Y-range (min and max) and step, in the output cube Note these values are the centers of the first and last pixel requested. Default: none.
Scale factors applied to input spectra. See also bzero=. One value for each input dataset much be given (see hi= above). Default: 1.0.
Offset applied to input spectra after scaling (bscale=). One for each input dataset much be given (see hi= above). Default: 0.0.
Relative weight factor given to a dataset when they are combined. One for each input dataset much be given (see hi= above). Default: 1.0
Number of neighbor cells to use in gridding. Default: 0 (only the scans in the cell of interest are taken into account).
Weighting distance (in degrees) with which data from neighboring pixels are used to combine. Currently the weighing function ... [Default: 1].
Minimum distance when to stop searching for a single spectrum. Only used if you want to override the one in the database (it is probably not a good idea to use this keyword and let the database choose a value). Default: not used, the internal database value (see hi.h: hi_defs[].dist_min) is used.
Modes in single spectrum search. Possible modes are first, average, and nearest. Minimum match applies. [Default: first].
Range of brightness temperatures which to include or exclude from the gridding. Note clipping occurs AFTER the data has been rescaled with the bzero,bscale parameters(see above). Default: none. ** not implemented **
Status output frequency (debug=1). Searching the databases for valid scans is very time consuming, and it’s useful to keep the user informed. Use 0 if no status output requested. Default: 100.
Projection. Valid projections are cartesian, in which galactic longitude (l) and latitude (b) are gridded, npolar and spolar grid the north-polar and south-polar cap resp. (xgrid= and ygrid= are also in degrees, and measure the degrees away from the polar cap), cos and aitoff. For npolar the galactic center is at the bottom, running clockwise, for spolar at the top, running counter clockwise. [Default: cartesian.
Optional parameters associated with a projection. Currently only used for cos and aitoff where they are used to override the central longitude (the default being the mean of xmin and xmax).
Comments added to table/fits file. Default: none.


The following example lists all scan positions (l, b, ra, dec) for the (Heiles&Habing) Hat Creek high latitude survey. Note the output is very large (134932 scans) and has been redirected to a file hh.pos:
    % hispectrum in=hh > hh.pos

This second example extracts a spectrum in the form of an ascii table. You can plot it using NEMO’s tabplot program, or go into a mongo-type program:

    % hispectrum in=hh lon=45 lat=20 > hh.45.20.spectrum

The third example grids a portion of the sky into a VLB (velocity-longitude-latitude) FITS cube:

    % hispectrum in=hh,pk vlsr=-100:100:2 xgrid=200,300,2 ygrid=-30,30,2


Program is disk space intensive: a scratch file with all velocity interpolated scans within the ROI (Region Of Interest: xgrid, ygrid) will be created; this will need about 4 * nscans * nv bytes. In addition the output datacube will be 4 * nv * nx * ny in size. nx, ny are the number of pixels in X and Y, nv those requested in velocity. The factor of 4 from the assumption that a C-float needs 4 bytes storage.

Velocity interpolation is enforced, but when gridding and combining multiple dataset proper bscale factor’s need to be used to get the correct answer. I.e. each dataset should be multiplied with the ratio of the channel separation of original divided by new (interpolated) cube.


hispectrum uses an internal fortran-to-c interface, and is unlikely to work on Unix versions where this is very different from the default BSD convention.

There is no check on available diskspace (scratch spectra plus gridded output data cube) before the program starts. To estimate the size of the scratch file is difficult.

Although gridding in X and Y is forced to be regular, the one in V is not forced to be. The CDELT1 written in the FITS file will be wrong in this case.

If the number of spectra per pixel is larger than a compiler defined value (MAXSCAN) the program will crash after all the hard work of sorting spectra has been done; this will happen in the middle of writing the output FITS file.

Only scans with known format (as defined in hi.h are understood. No provisions for some free format has been made yet.


$HI_DIR/            directory, or colon separated searchpath, where the ascii
(raw) scans live.
$NEMO/usr/bima/hi      source code
hiXXXXXX               scratch file (see mktemp) with scans for the cube gridding

See Also

hi(5NEMO) , fitsio(3NEMO) , tabplot(3NEMO) , himap(1NEMO) , fitstohi(1NEMO)


Peter Teuben, William T. Reach (decode.f)

Update History

29-Jun-92    V0.0 Created: simple spectrum extraction    PJT
1-jul-92    V0.1 cube gridder - using nearest cells     PJT
6-jul-92    V0.2 added HI_DIR, deleted nx=, ny=           PJT
8-nov-92    V0.3 10% faster code, but using 50% more memory    PJT
17-sep-93    V0.6 added mode= for single spectrum search    PJT
2-apr-94    V0.6a fixed bug in WW decoding               PJT
6-apr-94    V0.7 sigma=0 now default; delete scratchfile    PJT
29-sep-95    V0.8 added npolar/spolar projection options     PJT
x-mar-96    V0.9 added cosb averagin, gridding options    PJT
24-jul-2023    added URL to web simulator    PJT

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