Table of Contents

An added feature is that the objects can be
added as if they are in a "galactic" disk with given inclination and position
angle. The default is a "face-on" view (**inc=0**). No corrections for brightness
due to inclination are made however.

3D images are supported if **size=** contains
a 3rd non-1 value.

**out=**- Output file, in standard
*image(5NEMO)*format. No default. **object=**- Object type. Valid are flat, exp, gauss, bar, spiral, noise, test, blobs. See below for an explanation and their parameters. Default: flat
**spar=**- Parameters for this object. The
first parameter is often the peak value, and the second one a scale length.
Some object have more complex geometries and require more parameters. The
meaning of the peak value can be modified by setting
**totflux=t**(see below). The defaults are defined per object, but are typically 1,1...

For certain objects, the multiple objects can be given, and the sequence of parameters can be repeated. Currently**object=blobs**has this option for 3D cubes. **size=**- Mapsize. It is allowed to have a different size in X and Y.
**cell=**- Cellsize [1] *not used yet*
**pa=**- Position Angle of disk in which the object lives. Counted positive starting at North through East in the standard astronomical fashion. Default: 0
**inc=**- Inclination Angle of disk in which object lives. 0 is face on. Default: 0
**totflux=t|f**- If set
to true, the amplitude (always the first parameter in
**spar**) is interpreted as the total integrated intensity instead of the peak value of the object. Default:**f**. **factor=**- The factor by which an image is multiplied before the object is added. Warning: if the amplitude (usually the first of the spar= numbers) is 0, this will not apply, and the output would equal the input. Default: 1
**center=**- Center of object (in 0-based pixel coordinates). The lower left corner is counted as (0,0) here. Default: mapcenter.
**crpix=**- Override/Set crpix (1,1,1)
**crval=**- Override/Set crval (0,0,0)
**cdelt=**- Override/Set cdelt (1,1,1)
**seed=**- Random seed [0]
**headline=**- Random verbiage added to the image. Default: none
**in=**- Input file (optional) to be added to the output
file. Default: none, map is generated.

OBJECTA few object that are in MIRIAD’s-SPAR flatAA expA.exp(-r/h)A,h gaussA.exp(-r^2/(2h^2))A,h barA.exp(-r/h)A,h,e,b (e=1-minor/major b=bar position angle w.r.t. disk) noisegaussian(m,s)mean,sigma spiralA.exp(-r/h)A,h,k,p,m,r0,p0 ferrersA.(1-r^2)^pA,h,e,b,p (h=size of bar, p=power to 1-r^2) isothermalA.(1+r^2)^pA,h,p testx+10y+100z- blobsA,x,y,z,sizethey can be repeated for many blobs maybe to be implemented: j1xJ1(x)/x comet2d proj jetjet model w/ power law brightness shell2d proj of shell poisson

levelsame as our flat clustersame as isothermal, except we also allow p different from -0.5 noisenotice we have a mean, miriad doesn’t, also miriad has a crude low approximation pointuse exp with a very small scale length h gaussianour gauss, but bmin/bmaj via inc gauss3no equivalent, ccdgen does not support 3D models yet diskuse ferrers with p=0

Most of these objects have a peak or representative intensity value as the first argument, and a scale length as the second parameter. The next parameters are sometimes scale free

Bars have an additional axis ratio
(we mostly use e=1-b/a here) and position angle of the bar w.r.t. the disk
in the disk plane (see *snaprotate(1NEMO)*
for an approach if you know the
angle of the bar in the sky plane). A Ferrers bar also needs to know the
power (usuall an integer) to which 1-r^2 is raised.

Spirals are yet more complex:
A and h are the usual peak and exponential scale-length. k is the wavenumber
(related to the pitch angle as tan(pitch)
=1/(2.pi.k.r), see also *mkspiral(1NEMO)*
),
p controls the relative width of the spiral (assumed to be cos^p(m*phi),
r0 the starting radius of the spiral (defaults to 0), p0 the phase of
the spiral at radius r0, and m the number of spiral arms. In particular,
since the *pow(3)*
function is used internally for non-integer values of **p**,
the behavior of **m** for integer and non-integer values of **p** is different:
for integer values our own internal *powi(3NEMO)*
is used, and correctly
represents. For example, for m=1 and p=1 you’ll get a one armed spiral, but
with negative counter-arm. With p=2 it becomes a 2-armed spiral, as they will
get progressively narrower as p remains even and gets higher. For odd values
of p you will again have a positive and negative spiral, and as p gets
larger, the arms get narrower. By making sure **p** becomes non-integer, e.g.
p=2.0001, the negative arm becomes 0.

ccdgen bar.ccd object=bar spar=1,10,0.5,30 size=128,128

Here’s how to make a simple barred galaxy by adding an exponential disk
and a (smaller) exponential bar:

ccdgen - object=exp spar=1,40 pa=60 inc=45 size=256 |\ ccdgen in=- out=bar.ccd object=bar spar=10,6,0.5,70 pa=60 inc=45or if you want them to be a bit more astronomical, you’ll need to make the units come out in degrees for the conversion to FITS, viz.:

ccdgen - object=exp spar=1,40/3600 pa=60 inc=45 size=256 cdelt=-1/3600,1/3600 |\ ccdgen - object=bar spar=10,6/3600,0.5,70 pa=60 inc=45 in=- |\ ccdfits - bar.fits radecvel=tand the option to fill your cube with some random blobs and noise is a bit more involved:

nemoinp 1:100 |\ tabmath - - ’ranu(0,1),ranu(10,100),ranu(10,100),ranu(10,100),ranu(0,5)’ all > b100.tab ccdgen - blobs @b100.tab size=128,128,128 |\ ccdgen - noise 0,0.02 in=- |\ ccdsmooth - - 5 |\ ccdsky - - |\ ccdfits - junk2.fits radecvel=t ndim=4Here is an example of making a new data section (in this case just noise) by stealing the header from existing

fitshead NGC5194_91112.fits > tmp.fitshead nx=$(grep NAXIS1 tmp.fitshead|awk ’{print $3}’) ny=$(grep NAXIS2 tmp.fitshead|awk ’{print $3}’) nz=$(grep NAXIS3 tmp.fitshead|awk ’{print $3}’) ccdgen - object=noise spar=0,1 size=$nx,$ny,$nz |\ ccdfits - noise.fits fitshead=NGC5194_91112.fitsA test cube234.fits with value x + 10y + 100z can be made as follows:

ccdmath out=- fie=%x+10*%y+100*%z size=2,3,4 | ccdfits - cube234.fits

https://github.com/GalSim-developers/GalSim

imfit::makeimage

There are also good simulators in starlab and amuse

4-Jan-05V0.1 CreatedPJT 6-jan-05V0.7 added (many features and) factor=PJT 8-jan-05V0.8 add #arms parameter to spiralPJT 31-jan-12V0.9 added object=testPJT 12-mar-2020V1.0 added object=blobsPJT 8-may-2022V1.2 moved center= down the arg listPJT 8-dec-2022V2.0 moved in= down the arg listPJT